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The Pyramid of Kukulkan at Chichen Itza

THE SKY OF THE UPPER KEYS "The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing."
� Albert Einstein

Make the most out of your time, tailor to your needs. Identify the most important tasks and key time wasters. Discover new ways to allocate and manage your time, deal with challenging deadlines, imposing workloads, interruptions and ridiculous meetings.



The universe and Earth's place in it; the movements of the sun, planets, and stars in the sky; Earth's seasons; phases of the moon; and constellations and associated stories from Greek and Native American mythology... share the enthusiam for the fascinating and beautiful inhabitants of our solar system, and trade observations.
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The Solar System is made up of the Sun, the planets, their moons, asteroids and comets

There are eight planets and three dwarf planets of our solar system, along with the Sun. A planet is a large space object which revolves around a star. Eleven planets have been discovered in oursolar system. Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are the planets closest to the Sun. They are called the inner planets. The inner planets are made up of rock material. The outer planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are large balls of gases. Pluto is a dwarf planet. It is coated with ice.

There are 158 known moons that orbit the planets, as well as a countless number of other celestial bodies. There are thousands of known asteroids and comets and many more unknown ones. Most asteroids orbit between Mars and Jupiter.


This Week's Sky at a Glance


The 88 modern constellations.  Ptolemy's 48 constellations

Have You Seen The Stars Tonight? Lyrics by Paul Kantner

Have You Seen The Stars Tonight?
Would you like to go up on 'A' Deck and look at them with me?
Have You Seen The Stars Tonight?
Would you like to go up for a stroll and keep me company?



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The 48 constellations listed in Ptolemy�s Almagest are:


21 Northern Constellations


Andromeda, Aquila, Auriga, Bo�, Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Corona Borealis, Cygnus, Delphinus, Draco, Equuleus, Hercules, Lyra, Ophiuchus, Pegasus, Perseus, Sagitta, Serpens, Triangulum, Ursa Major, Ursa Minor



12 Zodiacal Constellations


Aries, Aquarius, Cancer, Capricornus, Gemini, Leo,

Libra, Pisces, Sagittarius, Scorpius, Taurus, Virgo



15 Southern Constellations


Ara, Argo Navis, Canis Major, Canis Minor, Centaurus, Cetus,

Corona Australis, Corvus, Crater, Eridanus, Hydra, Lepus, Lupus,

Orion, Pisces Austrinus


The constellation Ursa Minor contains the group of stars commonly called the Little Dipper. The handle of the Dipper is the Little Bear's tail and the Dipper's cup is the Bear's flank. The Little Dipper is not a constellation itself, but an asterism, which is a distinctive group of stars.

The most famous star in Ursa Minor is Polaris, the North Star.

To find Polaris, first find the Big Dipper. If you follow the two stars at the end of the cup upwards (out of the cup of the Big Dipper), the next bright star you will run into is Polaris.  Because they are so useful for finding the all-important North Star, these two stars are known as the Pointer Stars. They are also called Dubhe and Merak (Merak is the one at the bottom of the cup).

Orion -  In mid-November the hunter stands high in the southeast at midnight. He has his shield and club raised against the fierce charge of neighboring Taurus the Bull.   Astronomy ORION 
Directly between Orion's brightest stars - white Rigel and golden orange Betelgeuse - is its Belt, set with three bright stars like bluish silver studs. From the Belt hangs a well defined dagger made up of three other fainter stars, of which the one in the middle is actually not a star at all, but the Great Orion Nebula (M 42)   IC  434 Horsehead Nebula   

Orion was the son of Neptune. He was a handsome giant and a mighty hunter. His father gave him the power of wading through the depths of the sea, or as others say, of walking on its surface.

Scorpius is the beast which finally killed the Great Hunter, Orion. Although the scorpion and Orion appear together in this myth, the constellation of Orion is almost opposite to Scorpius in the night sky.Thus, Scorpius rule the northern hemisphere's summer while Orion rules the winter skies.The bright star Antaries makes this constellation easy to find, as Scorpius crawls across the southern sky, close to the horizon.

The story of Scorpius and Orion the hunter. Orion boasted that he was the greatest hunter in the universe. When Zeus' wife, Hera, heard what he was saying, she became infuriated and sent a poisonous scorpion to kill him. Orion fought with this creature for days and nights without any success. When weary Orion was not looking, the creature sneaked in and stung him to death. Zeus took pity on Orion and placed him in the heavens where he appears as a giant, with a girdle, sword, lion's skin, and club. Hera placed the scorpion in the heavens at the opposite end of the sky, The animal would chase Orion across the heavens, but it could never catch him, for the scorpion was so placed that it would rise in the east only after Orion had safely disappeared over the western horizon.

Taurus -  is one of the constellations of the zodiac. It sits large and prominent in the winter sky, between Aries to the west and Gemini to the east; to the north lie Perseus and Auriga, to the southeast Orion, and to the southwest Eridanus and Cetus.            The ecliptic crosses Taurus between the two Open Star Clusters Pleiades (M 45) and Hyades.

Taurus involves the seven daughters of Atlas, (Pleione star belonging to the Pleiades star cluster ) The great hunter Orion took more than a passing interest in them. Atlas felt a rather old fashioned concern for his daughters, and asked Zeus to protect them. Zeus transformed the seven sisters into doves and placed them in the sky. When Orion followed them, Zeus placed a large bull between him and the seven new stars.                 The Bull was the symbol for power and strength.

Perseus -  can be seen in late summer and autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. Messier Objects in Perseus: M34, M76 M-34 This is a fine open cluster, easily seen in binoculars as somewhat box shaped.

Perseus is mostly remembered for one series of adventures: the killing of the Gorgon Medusa and the rescue of Andromeda. Perseus was the son of Zeus and Danae (the daughter of Acrisius of Argos). Perseus' grandfather, Acrisius, the king of Argos, was warned by an oracle that he would be killed by his grandson.When Perseus and Andromeda died, they were given honored places among the stars by the goddess Athena.  Cetus, the sea-monster, was there waiting for them and forever chases Andromeda around the sky, but Perseus continues to guard her well.

Andromeda -  M31 is the famous Andromeda galaxy, our nearest large neighbor galaxy,  with its companions (including M32 and M110, two bright dwarf elliptical galaxies), M33 and others.

Andromeda the daughter of Cassiopeia and Cepheus. Unfortunately Cassiopeia the queen of Ethiopia thought herself to be beautiful. And foolishly claimed that Andromeda was so beautiful that even the sea nymphs (Nereids). Hera, Zeus' jealous wife, and the Nereids themselves, overheard this. Furious at Cassiopeia's boasting, they visited Poseidon (the sea god) and demanded an immediate punishment. To punish the mother, Andromeda was chained to a rock of the coast as a sacrifice for a sea monster. Yet she escaped this fate for she was saved from death by Perseus. For rescuing her he demanded Andromeda as his wife.

At the wedding relatives distrupted the proceedings, probably at Cassiopeia's insistence. In the following melee both Cassiopeia and Cepheus lost their life. Poseidon put them both in the heavens.

Much later Athene put Andromeda in the same region of the sky, between mother and father.

Cassiopeia -  Cassiopeia is as big "W" in the sky. Cassiopeia floats overhead in fall and winter. Once you found Cassiopeia or the Big Dipper, which is located opposite of the celestial pole, you can locate other constellations of the northern hemisphere.

Cassiopeia is named after the queen of a country on the northern coast of Africa, Aethiopia (not modern Ethiopia).

Cepheus was the son of Belus, king of Egypt (who was himself the son of Poseidon). Cepheus grew to become the King of Ethiopia (or Joppa). He married Cassiopeia and they had a daughter Andromeda. Cephus was seen by ancient peoples as a king. The image of the king is sometimes shown with his foot on the Pole Star. It is one of the circumpolar constellations visible at 40� north latitude. Cepheus  the ancient Ethiopian king, which of asterism can be found in the autumn's Milky Way just west of Cassiopeia's chair. The constellation mainly consists of five stars with mostly third and fourth magnitude, and they forms a strained pentagon.Cepheus, the King, is visible all year in the northern hemisphere.. The constellation of Cepheus, the King, is one of the oldest constellations and plays an important part in Greek Mythology. Together with Cassiopeia the Queen, Cepheus ruled the northern skies.

Auriga - is almost circumpolar, and so is visible for most of the year in the Northern Hemisphere.

Auriga is usually pictured as a charioteer; the youth Auriga wields a whip in one hand and holds a goat (Capella) and her two kids in the other. Its brightest star is Capella, is the sixth brightest star in the sky. Although it appears as a single point to the naked eye, Capella is actually a bright close binary pair of stars along side a second, fainter binary.This constellation is associated with the mythological Amalthea she-goatfoster-mothers of Zeus the ruler of Mount Olympus, and god of the sky and thunder.The three stars Epsilon Zeta and Eta Auriga are called Haedi (the Kids).Epsilon Aurigae is an eclipsing binary, (A binary star is a stellar system consisting of two stars orbiting around their center of mass). These stars brightness varies inapparent visual mag. ( star,planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth).

The Greeks and the Babylonians depict him as the lame son of Vulcan and Minvera, Erichthonius, who is said to have invented the four horse chariot.

Pegasus - large asterism known as the Square of Pegasus. together with Alpha Andromedae (α And / α Andromedae) is the brightest star in the Andromeda Constellation, which is located immediately northwest of Pegasus

In Greek mythology, Pegasus is the famous  winged horse that was fathered by Poseidon with Medusa. When her head was cut of by the Greek hero Perseus, the horse sprang to life from the blood of the pregnant body of Medusa. Pegasus was a white horse with wings but without the horn of a unicorn. Pegasus was captured by Bellerophon. Bellerophon used a golden bridle provided by Athena to capture and tame Pegasus.

Riding Pegasus, Bellerophon proved hard to conquer. He slew one beast called the Chimera (a creature who was part lion, part goat and part snake). Pegasus was faithful to Bellerophon, until he attempted to conquer Mount Olympus. Pegasus knew he should not do that. Pegasus threw his rider. Bellerophon ended up blind and lame for his hubris. Pegasus galloping created the well Hippocrene on the Helicon (a mountain in Boeotia). The Gods, rewarded Pegasus by placing him among the stars.

Hercules - was the Roman name for the greatest hero of Greek mythology -- Heracles. Hercules had a god as one of his parents, and the other a mortal woman . Heracles was the son of Zeus  and Alcmene. His jealous stepmother queen Hera, tried to murder the infant Hercules by putting a serpent in his cradle. Luckily for Hercules, he was born with great strength and killed the serpent. By the time Hercules was an adult, he had already killed a lion. Eventually, Hera drove Hercules insane. In manhood, Hera made Hercules insane by burning down his house and killing his wife Megara, and their three children. Due to his insanity, Hercules exiled himself because of the shame that he had brought on himself through his lack of sanity.

When Hercules recovered his sanity, he sought the help from the oracle of Delphi to regain his honor. The oracle told him he must serve his cousin Eurystheus, King of Argos, for 12 years. King Eurystheus couldn't think of any tasks that might prove difficult for the mighty son of Zeus. Hera came down from Olympus to help Eurystheus. Together, they came up with twelve tasks for Hercules to complete. Hoping to destroy Hercules, they set him out on the 12 impossible tasks, but the hero completed them all.

Among his famous Twelve Labors, Hercules defeated the Nemean Lion (Leo) and the many-headed beast called Hydra. While fighting Hydra, Hercules also killed the little crab, Cancer - The twelve labors are thought to represent the Sun's passing through the twelve zodiacal constellations.

After Hercules completed his service to Eurystheus, he took part in the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts to find the Golden Fleece. - Hercules died when his second wife Deianeira, (the warrior step-daughter of King Oeneus of Calydon - her real father was the god Dionysus).  accidentally put poison on his robe.  She thought that Hercules was being unfaithful and poured a magic potion on his robe that was suppose to restore his love for her.

Proud of Hercules for dying so nobly, Zeus made him immortal. Somehow he even convinced Hera to let Hercules marry her daughter Hebe. Hercules became the porter of Olympus, where he remained forever. However, since Hercules was half mortal, a part of him went to the underworld, to spend eternity in the Elysian Fields with other great heroes.

Hercules, the Son of Zeus, is best seen in the summer in the Northern Hemisphere. You can find hime by looking between Draco and Ophiuchus. M13 The Great Hercules Globular Cluster (globular cluster); M92 (globular cluster).

LEO -The zodiacal constellation is generally accepted to represent the Nemean Lion, killed by Hercules during his first labor of his 12 Labours.  According to myth, this fearsome beast terrorised the land, killing all who ventured near it. Not only was it more fierce, larger and stronger than other lions, but it also had  a skin which was impervious to metal, stone and wood.  Hercules got around this obstacle by wrestling the lion and strangling it to death. He then removed one of its claws, and used it to skin the animal. From then on, Hercules wore the skin of the Nemean Lion as protection.

Hera was angry at Hercules' success that she raised the soul of the lion high into the sky, where he can be seen as the constellation Leo, the Lion.

Lyra - is a small constellation, but its principal star, Vega, is one of the brightest in the sky. Vega forms a vertex of the Summer Triangle Asterism There are two Messier objects in Lyra: M56 and M57. M56 (NGC 6729) is a globular cluster,

Lyre was invented by Hermes. When  a child, he pulled a cow-gut across a tortoise shell. Hermes gave his half-brother Apollo (both were fathered by Zeus) the lyre. Apolo became known as the god of music. Orpheus was given the instrument by Apollo. Muses taught Orpheus to play the instrument. lyre of Orpheus, a son of the god Apollo and Calliope, one of the muses. He married Eurydice, a nymph who died early in the marriage when bitten by a snake. Mother Nature would stop to listen to his music. Orpheus playing convinced Hades to release Eurydice, from the underworld.

Gemini -  is a zodiacal constellation, best viewed in winter. Gemini can be found any time that Orion is visible. Gemini is located just up and to the left of Orion during the early evening hours of February and March. Lying between Taurus to the west and the dim Cancer to the east, with Auriga and Canis Minor to the south. The stars Castor and Pollux, are the "heads" of the twins.

Castor and Pollux, the "twins" of Gemini, were Greek heroes. Both were mothered by Leda, and were therefore brothers of Helen,( Helen of Troy, who would become Queen of Sparta, and whose abduction lead to the Trojan War). Castor and Pollux had different fathers. Pollux were born from an egg after their mother, Leda, Queen of Sparta, had been seduced by Zeus, disguised as a swan.  Castor, the mortal son of Leda's husband, King Tyndareus. Castor and Pollux were legendary adventurers and fighters. They were members of the Argonauts, and were among the men Jason led on his voyages on the Argo, in pursuit of the Golden Fleece. Pollux, as the son of a god, was immortal and was renowned for his strength, while his mortal brother Castor was famous for his skill with horses. Castor and Pollux were known to be well-educated, strong and daring, while remaining gentle individuals. They were celebrated as healers, physicians and protectors of humankind.

Cygnus - the Swan, is one of the more obvious asterisms in the summer skies, because of its distinctive shape it is sometimes called the Northern Cross.The tail of the swan is marked by the bright star Dened, Arabic for "tail". Three fainter stars cross the line between Deneb and the head of the swan, Albireo.

Gods have transform themselves into a swan, usually to seduce some attractive nymph or queen. Zeus, turn himself y into a swan, to seduce Leda on her wedding night. Leda, the King of Sparta's wife.The outcome was Pollux, half-brother of Castor.



Claudius Ptolemaeus Pelusiniensis (Ptolemy) lived in Alexandria, Egypt approximately 85-165 AD or 87-150 AD, and worked there as philosopher, astronomer (and astrologer), mathemetician and geographer. Claudius Ptolemaeus. Greek philosopher who synthesized and extended Hipparchus's system of epicycles and eccentric circles to explain his geocentric theory of the solar system. Ptolemy believed the planets and Sun to orbit the Earth in the order Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn. This system became known as the Ptolemaic system and predicted the positions of the planets accurately enough for naked-eye observations.

ERATOSTHENES - He made several discoveries and inventions including a system of latitude and longitude. He was the first Greek to calculate the circumference of the Earth, and the tilt of the earth's axis; he may also have accurately calculated the distance from the earth to the sun and invented the leap day. ( 276 - 195 B.C. )

NICOLAUS COPERNICUS -  Polish astronomer, was the first to theorize that the Sun, not the Earth was the center of the universe. ( 1473 - 1543 )

GALILEO GALILEI - introduced the telescope to astronomy in 1609.This great Italian scientist became the first man to see the craters of the moon, and to discover sunspots, the four large moons of Jupiter, and the rings of Saturn. Galileo's telescope was similar to a pair of opera glasses in that it used an arrangement of glass lenses to magnify objects. The universe cannot be read until we have learnt the language. The mathematical language of triangles, circles and other geometrical figures.

Isaac Newton - (1642-1727), mathematician and physicist, was the first scientist to marry physics with astronom y, discovering that the same force that causes objects to fall on Earth, causes the motion of planets and the moon. Using his Law of gravity, the law of Kepler are explained, and the heliocentric system gained a sound physical basis, celestial mechanics was invented.

Charles Messier (June 26, 1730 - April 12, 1817) - Charles got interested in astronomy when he was 14 years old, and a great 6-tailed comet appeared. This interest was further stimulated by an annular Solar eclipse which was visible from his hometown on July 25, 1748.   In 1751 he went to Paris, where he arrived in October. He was employed by the astronomer of the Navy, Joseph Nicolas Delisle, because of his fine hand-writing.


1666 Robert Hooke shows that a central force leads to orbital motion. Hooke used a pendulum to demonstrate in order to stay in orbit, the planets must be continually pulled toward the Sun. 

1667  Newton discovers law of universal gravitation

1668  James Gregory makes the first realistic estimate of the distances of the stars.

1678  Christian Huygens proposes that light consists of waves

1682  Edmund Halley predicts return of Comet Halley

1718  Edmund Halley discovers stars move through space

1781  Charles Messier prepares list of nebulae

1783  William Herschel discovers speed and direction of Sun's motion

1790  Pierre Simon Laplace proposes stars can produce black holes.

1851  Jean Foucault uses pendulum to demonstrate Earth rotates.

1862  William Huggins identifies chemical elements in stars

1913  Henry Norris Russell, The H-R diagram became an important tool for understanding the evolution of stars.

1916  Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. Einstein explained that matter curves space, causing bodies to move in ways we attribute to gravity.

Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889  �September 28, 1953) was an American Astronomer. He profoundly changed astronomers' understanding of the nature of the universe by demonstrating the existence of other galaxies besides the Milky Way. He also discovered that the degree of redshift observed in light coming from a galaxy increased in proportion to the distance of that galaxy from the Milky Way. This became known as Hubbl's Law, and would help establish that the universe is expanding.


 The Perseid and Leonid meteor showers
The Perseid meteor shower occurs during August every year and the Leonids occur during the last part of November. Meteor showers are usually best viewed during the very early hours of the morning. You will get the best results if you go out of the city to an area where the skies are truly dark. Meteor are small objects that crash into Earth's atmosphere at a speed of several thousand miles per hour. A meteor are small and burns up before it hits the ground. When comets visit our solar system, they leave behind trails that are thousands miles long made up of very small particles of dust and ice. As Earth makes its annual journey around the Sun, it passes through the tails of these comets. As our planet goes through these trails of dust, the particles pulled by gravity in to our atmosphere, which results in the meteor showers.


The Moon has fascinated mankind throughout the ages. The Earth's Moon is the fifth largest in the whole solar system. By simply viewing with the naked eye, one can discern two major types of terrain: relatively bright highlands and darker plains.

Dark areas on the Moon are called maria, which means "seas" in latin. Astronauts discovered that these regions are smooth and shallow. Maria have few craters and are covered with a type of rock (called basalts) which are similar to lava rocks formed by volcanoes here on Earth.

Light-colored areas are more hilly and covered with lots of craters. This is the "land", or terrae on the Moon. The color of these areas comes from a type of light-colored rock called anorthosite. This type of rock is found only in the oldest mountain ranges on the Earth.

Explore the Moon... discover its dramatic features and phenomena - often beautiful, sometimes bizarre, always changing

The moon is the Earth's only known natural satellite. It has been known since prehistoric times. It is the second brightest object in the sky after the Sun. It shines by the sun's reflected light, revolving around the Earth from east to west in about 29.5 days with reference to the sun. It has a diameter of  2160 miles and a mean distance from the Earth of about  238,700 miles.

The four major moon phases are "New" , "1st Quarter" , "Full" and "Last or 3rd Quarter". These phases have to do with the relative positions of the sun, the moon and the earth in the moon's 29 day monthly orbit of the earth.

It takes our Moon about 29.5 days to completely cycle through all eight phases. Occasionally (about every 2.7 years) there are two Full Moons in the same month. This is referred to as a Blue Moon. Hence the saying "Once in a Blue Moon".



New Moon
The side of the moon facing the Earth is not illuminated. Additionally, the moon is up through out the day, and down through out the night. For these reasons we can not see the moon during this phase.
Waxing Crescent
During this phase, part of the Moon is beginning to show. This lunar sliver can be seen each evening for a few minutes just after sunset. We say that the Moon is "waxing" because each night a little bit more is visible for a little bit longer.
First Quarter
During first quarter, 1/2 of the moon is visible for the first half of the evening, and then goes down, leaving the sky very dark.
Waxing Gibbous
When most of the Moon is visible we say it is a Gibbous Moon. Observers can see all but a little sliver of the moon. During this phase, the Moon remains in the sky most of the night.
Full Moon
When we can observe the entire face of the moon, we call it a Full Moon. A full moon will rise just as the evening begins, and will set about the time morning is ushered in.
Waning Gibbous
Like the Waxing Gibbous Moon, during this phase, we can see all but a sliver of the Moon. The difference is that instead of seeing more of the Moon each night, we begin to see less and less of the Moon each night. This is what the word "waning" means.
Last Quarter
During a Last Quarter Moon we can see exactly 1/2 of the Moon's lighted surface.
Waning Crescent
Finally, during a Waning Crescent Moon, observers on Earth can only see a small sliver of the Moon, and only just before morning. Each night less of the Moon is visible for less time.



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The distance light can travel in one year, which is 9,500,000,000,000 kilometers.

  • The Crab supernova remnant is about 4,000 light-years away.


  • The Milky Way Galaxy is about 150,000 light-years across.


    • The Andromeda Galaxy is 2.3 million light-years

    Charles Messier (Deep Space )

                  DEEP SPACE  KEY LARGO YOU TUBE

    M 001 - (September 12, 1758) `Nebula above the southern horn of Taurus, it doesn't contain any star; it is a whitish light, elongated in the shape of a flame of a candle

    M 002 - (September 11, 1760) `Nebula without star in the head of Aquarius, its center is brilliant, & the light surrounding it is round; it resembles the beautiful nebula which is situated between the head & the bow of Sagittarius

    M 003 - (May 3, 1764) `Nebula discovered between Bootes & one of the Hunting Dogs of Hevelius [Canes Venatici], it doesn't contain any star, its center is brilliant, & its light is gradually fading away, it is round; in a beautiful [dark] sky

    M 004 - (May 8, 1764) `Cluster of very small [faint] stars;  it appears more like a nebula; this cluster is situated near Antares & on its parallel

    M 005 - (May 23, 1764) `Beautiful Nebula discovered between the Balance [Libra] & the Serpent [Serpens], near the star in the Serpent, of 6th magnitude,  it doesn't contain any star; it is round, & one sees it very well, in a fine [clear dark] sky

    M 006 -  (May 23, 1764) `Cluster of small stars between the bow of Sagittarius & the tail of Scorpius.  this cluster seems to form a nebula without stars; but is a cluster of small [faint] stars. 

    M 007 -  (May 23, 1764) `Star cluster more considerable than M 006; this cluster appears to the naked eye like a nebulosity; it is little distant from the preceding, placed between the bow of Sagittarius & the tail of Scorpius

    M 008 - (May 23, 1764) `A cluster which appears in the shape of a nebula ; but is a large quantity of small [faint] stars; near this cluster is a fairly bright star, surrounded by a very faint glow: this is the ninth star of Sagittarius, of seventh magnitude, according to Flamsteed [9 Sgr]: this cluster appears in elongated shape, which extends from North-East to South-West, between the arc of Sagittarius & the foot of Ophiuchus. 

    M 009 - (May 28, 1764) `Nebula, without star, in the right leg of Ophiuchus; it is round & its light is faint.

    M 010 - (May 29, 1764) `Nebula, without stars, in the belt of Ophiuchus, near the 30th star of that constellation, of sixth magnitude, . This nebula is beautiful & round

    M 011 -  (May 30, 1764) `Cluster of a great number of small [faint] stars, near the star K of Antinous [ Sct], it resembles a Comet: This cluster is mingled with a faint glow; in this cluster there is a star of 8th magnitude. 

    M 012 -  (May 30, 1764) `Nebula discovered in the Serpent, between the arm and the left side of Ophiuchus: this nebula doesn't contain any star, it is round & its light faint; near this nebula there is a star of 9th magnitude.

    M 013 - (June 1, 1764) `Nebula without star, discovered in the belt of Hercules; it is round & brilliant, the center [is] more brilliant than the edges,  it is near two stars, the one & the other of 8th magnitude, the one above and the other below it: the nebula ['s position]

    M 014 - (June 1, 1764) `Nebula without star, discovered in the garb which dresses the right arm of Ophiuchus, & situated on the parallel of Zeta of Serpens: this nebula is not large,  it is round, near it is a small [faint] star of the nineth magnitude; its position has been determined by comparing it with Gamma of Ophiuchus

    M 015 -  (June 3, 1764) `Nebula without a star, between the head of Pegasus and that of Equuleus; it is round, in the center it is brilliant, its position was determined by comparison with Delta Equulei.

    M 016 - (June 3, 1764) `A cluster of small stars, enmeshed in a faint glow, near the tail of Serpens, at little distance to the parallel of Zeta of this constellation

    M 017 - (June 3, 1764) `A train of light without stars, of 5 or 6 minutes in extent, in the shape of a spindle, & a little like that in Andromeda's belt [M31] but of a very faint light; there are two telescopic stars nearby & placed parallel to the equator

    M 018 - (June 3, 1764) `A cluster of small stars, a little below above nebula, No. 17, surrounded by slight nebulosity, this cluster is less obvious than the preceding, No. 16, this cluster appears like a nebula; but with a good telescope one sees nothing but stars

    M 019 - (June 5, 1764) `Nebula without stars, on the parallel of Antares between Scorpius and the right foot of Ophiuchus: this nebula is round;  the nearest neighboring known star to this nebula is 28 Ophiuchi, which is of mag. 6

    M 020 -  (June 5, 1764) `Cluster of stars, a little above the Ecliptic, between the bow of Sagittarius & the right foot of Ophiuchus


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    M 021 - (June 5, 1764) `Star cluster, near the preceding M20: The nearest neighboring known star to these two clusters is 11 Sagittarii, 7 mag,  The stars of both these clusters are of 8-9 magnitude, enveloped in nebulosity.

    M 022 - (June 5, 1764) `Nebula, below the ecliptic, between the head and the bow of Sagittarius, near a star of 7th magnitude, 25 Sagittarii,  this nebula is round, it doesn't contain any star,  the star Lambda Sagittarii served for determination [of its position].

    M 023 - (June 20, 1764) `A star cluster, between the end of the bow of Sagittarius & the right foot of Ophiuchus, very near to 65 Ophiuchi. The stars of this cluster are very close to one another. Its position was determined from Mu Sagittarii

    M 024 - (June 20, 1764) `Cluster on the parallel of the preceding [M23] & near the end of the bow of Sagittarius, in the Milky Way: a large nebulosity in which there are many stars of different magnitudes: the light which is spread throughout this cluster is divided into several parts; it is the center of this cluster which has been determined [position].

    M 025 - (June 20, 1764) `A cluster of small stars in the neighborhood of the two previous clusters [M23 and M24], between the head & the end of the bow of Sagittarius: the nearest known star to this cluster is 21 Sagittarii, 6th magnitude.  Its position has been determined from Mu Sagittarii

    M 026 - (June 20, 1764) `A cluster near Eta and Omicron in Antinous [now Alpha and Delta Scuti], between which there is another one of more brightness:

    M 027 - (July 12, 1764) `Nebula without star, discovered in Vulpecula, between the two forepaws, & very near the star 14 of that constellation, of 5th magnitude; it appears of oval shape, & it contains no star. 

    M 028 -  (July 27, 1764) `Nebula discovered in the upper part of the bow of Sagittarius at about one degree from the star Lambda & little distant from the beautiful nebula which is between the head and the bow [M22]. It contains no star; it is round,

    M 029 - (July 29, 1764) `A cluster of 7 or 8 very small stars, which are below Gamma Cygni,  in the form of a nebula. Its position determined from Gamma Cygni.

    M 030 -  August 3, 1764) `Nebula discovered below the tail of Capricorn, very near to the star 41 of that constellation, of 6th magnitude. It is round & contains no star; its position determined from Zeta Capricorni.

    M 031 - (August 3, 1764) `The beautiful nebula of the belt of Andromeda, shaped like a spindle;it resembles two cones or pyramides of light, opposed at their bases, the axes of which are in direction NW-SE; the two points of light or the apices are about 40 arc minutes apart; the common base of the pyramids is about 15'.

    M 032 - (August 3, 1764) `Small nebula without stars, below & at some minutes [separation] from that of the belt of Andromeda [M31]; this small nebula is round, its light fainter than that of the belt.

    M 033 - (August 25, 1764) `Nebula discovered between the head of the Northern Fish [of Pisces] & the great Triangle, a bit distant from a star of 6th magnitude: The nebula is of a whitish light of almost even density [of brightness], however a little brighter along two-third of its diameter, & contains no star. Its position was determined from Alpha Trianguli.   Triangulum Galaxy

    M 034 -  (August 25, 1764) `Cluster of small stars, between the head of Medusa (Algol) & the left foot of Andromeda, a little below the parallel of Gamma [Andromedae]:  Its position has been determined from Beta [Persei], the head of Medusa

    M 035 - August 30, 1764) `Cluster of very small stars, near the left foot of Castor, at a little distance from the stars Mu & Eta of that constellation [Gemini]. 

    M 036 -  (September 2, 1764) `Cluster of stars in Auriga, near the star Phi:  the cluster contains no nebulosity. Its position determined from Phi [Aurigae] 

    M 037 - (September 2, 1764) `Cluster of small stars, little remote from the preceding [M36], above the parallel of chi Aurigae; the stars are smaller, more close together and enclosing some nebulosity.

    M 038 -  (September 25, 1764) `Cluster of small stars in Auriga, near the star Sigma, little distant from the two preceding clusters [M36 and M37]; this one is of square shape & contains no nebulosity,

    M 039 - (October 24, 1764) `Cluster of stars near the tail of the Swan.

    M 040 - (October 24, 1764) nebula above the tail of the Great Bear,  two stars very near to each other & of equal brightness, about the 9th magnitude, placed at the beginning of the tail of Ursa Major: one has difficulty to distinguish them with an ordinary [nonachromatic]


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    M 041 - (January 16, 1765) `Cluster of stars below Sirius, near Rho Canis Majoris; this cluster appears nebulous ; it is nothing more than a cluster of small stars

    M 042 - (March 4, 1769) `Position of the beautiful nebula in the sword of Orion, around the star Theta which ii contains [together] with three other smaller stars.

    M 043 -  (March 4, 1769) `Position of the little star surrounded by nebulosity & which is below the nebula of the sword of Orion.

    M 044 - (March 4, 1769) `Cluster of stars known by the name of the nebula in Cancer. 

    M 045 -  (March 4, 1769) `A cluster of stars, known by the name of the PleiadesPleiades & Merope Nebula

    M 046 - (February 19, 1771) `A cluster of very small stars, between the head of the Great Dog and the two hind feet of the Unicorn, [its position] determined by comparing this cluster with the star 2 Navis, of 6th-magnitude.

    M 047 -  (February 19, 1771) `Cluster of stars, little distant from the preceding; the stars are greater [brighter]; the middle of the cluster was compared with the same star, 2 Navis. The cluster contains no nebulosity.

    M 048 - (February 19, 1771) `Cluster of very small [faint] stars, without nebulosity; this cluster is at a short distance from the three stars that form the beginning of the Unicorn's tail.

    M 049 - (February 19, 1771) `Nebula discovered near the star Rho Virginis.

    M 050 - (April 5, 1772) `Cluster of small stars, more or less brilliant, above the right loins of the Unicorn, above the star Theta of the ear of Canis Major, & near a star of 7th magnitude.

    M 051 - (January 11, 1774) `Very faint nebula, without stars, near the eye of the Northern Greyhound [hunting dog], below the star Eta of 2nd magnitude of the tail of Ursa Major.

    M 052 -  (September 7, 1774) `Cluster of very small [faint] stars, mingled with nebulosity,  this cluster is below the star d Cassiopeiae: that star was used to determine the position.

    M 053 - (February 26, 1777) `Nebula without stars discovered below & near Coma Berenices, a little distant from the star 42 in that constellation

    M 054 -  (July 24, 1778) `Very faint nebula, discovered in Sagittarius; its center is brilliant & it contains no star,Its position has been determined from Zeta Sagittarii, of 3rd magnitude.

    M 055 - (July 24, 1778) `A nebula which is a whitish spot, of about 6' extension, its light is even and does not appear to contain any star. Its position has been determined from zeta Sagittarii, with the use of an intermediate star of 7th magnitude.

    M 056 - (January 23, 1779) `Nebula without stars, having little light; its position determined by comparing it with the star 2 Cygni,  it is near the Milky Way; and close to it is a star of 10th magnitude.

    M 057 - (January 31, 1779) `A cluster of light between Gamma & Beta Lyrae, this patch of light, which is round, must be composed of very small stars:  Nebula between gamma and beta Lyrae; it is very dull, but perfectly outlined; it is as large as Jupiter & resembles a planet which is fading.

    M 058 - (April 15, 1779) `Very faint nebula discovered in Virgo, almost on the same parallel as epsilon [Virginis], 3rd mag.

    M 059 - (April 15, 1779) `Nebula in Virgo & in the neighborhood of the preceding M58, on the parallel of epsilon [Virginis], which has served for its [position] determination: it is of the same light as the above, equally faint.

    M 060 - (April 15, 1779) `Nebula in Virgo, a little more distinct than the two preceding [M58 and M59], on the same parallel as epsilon [Virginis], which has served for its position determination.

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    M 061 - (May 11, 1779) `Nebula, very faint & difficult to perceive. 12h 10m 44s (182d 41' 05") +5d 42' 05"

    M 062 - (June 4, 1779) `Very beautiful nebula, discovered in Scorpio, it resembles a little Comet, the center is brilliant & surrounded by a faint glow. Its position determined, by comparing it with the star Tau of Scorpius. 

    M 063 -(June 14, 1779) `Nebula is faint, it has nearly the same light as the nebula reported under no. 59 [M59]: it contains no star, & the slightest illumination of the micrometer wires makes it disappear: it is close to a star of 8th magnitude, which precedes the nebula on the hour wire.  

    M 064 - (March 1, 1780) `Nebula discovered in Coma Berenices, which is about half as apparent as that which is below the hair M53.

    M 065 -  (March 1, 1780) `Nebula discovered in Leo: It is very faint and contains no star.

    M 066 -  (March 1, 1780) `Nebula discovered in Leo; its light is very faint & it is very close to the preceding M65.

    M 067 -  (April 6, 1780) `Cluster of small stars with nebulosity, below the southern claw of Cancer. The position determined from the star Alpha [Cancri].

    M 068 -  (April 9, 1780) `Nebula without stars below Corvus & Hydra; it is very faint, near it is star of sixth magnitude.

    M 069 - (August 31, 1780) `Nebula without star, in Sagittarius, below his left arm & near the arc; near it is a star of 9th magnitude; its light is very faint.

    M 070 -  (August 31, 1780) `Nebula without star, near the preceding M69, & on the same parallel: near it is a star of the nineth magnitude & four small telescopic stars, almost on the same straight line, very close to one another, & [they] are situated above the nebula,  the position of the nebula was determined from the same star Epsilon Sagittarii.

    M 071 - (October 4, 1780) `Nebula discovered  between the stars Gamma and Delta Sagittae.  its light is very faint & it contains no star;  It is situated about 4 degrees below [south of]  Vulpecula. 

    M 072 -  (October 4, 1780) `Nebula  above the neck of Capricorn.  the light is faint near it is a small telescopic star: the position was determined from the star Nu Aquarii, of fifth magnitude.

    M 073 -  (October 4 & 5, 1780) `Cluster of three or four small stars, which resembles a nebula at first sight, containing a little nebulosity: this cluster is situated on the same parallel as the preceding nebula M72: its position was determined from the same star Nu Aquarii.

    M 074 - (October 18, 1780) `Nebula without stars, near the star Eta Piscium, "This nebula doesn't contain any stars; it is fairly large, very obscure, and extremely difficult to observe; 

    M 075 -  (October 18, 1780) `Nebula without star, between Sagittarius & the head of Capricorn;

    M 076 - (October 21, 1780) `Nebula at the right foot of Andromeda, "This nebula contains no star; it is small and faint". composed of nothing but small stars, containing nebulosity, & that the least light employed to illuminate the micrometer wires causes it disappear: its position was determined from the star Phi Andromedae, of fourth magnitude.

    M 077 - (December 17, 1780) `Cluster of small stars, which contains some nebulosity, in Cetus & on the parallel of the star Delta, reported of the third magnitude,

    M 078 - (December 17, 1780) `Cluster of stars, with much nebulosity in Orion & on the same parallel as the star Delta in the belt, which has served to determine its position; the cluster follows [is east of] the star on the hour wire at 3d 41', & the cluster is above [north of] the star by 27'7".On the left side of Orion ; 2 to 3 minutes in diameter, one can see two fairly bright nuclei, surrounded by nebulosity"

    M 079 - (December 17, 1780) `Nebula without star, situated below Lepus, & on the same parallel as a star of sixth magnitude: this nebula is beautiful; the center brilliant, the nebulosity a little diffuse; its position was determined from the star Epsilon Leporis, of fourth magnitude.

    M 080 - (January 4, 1781) `Nebula without star, in Scorpius, between the stars g. [now Rho Ophiuchi] and Delta, compared to g to determine its position: this nebula is round, the center brilliant, & it resembles the nucleus of a small Comet, surrounded with nebulosity.

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    M 081 - (February 9, 1781) `A nebula near the ear of the great Bear [Ursa Major], on the parallel of the star d, of fourth or fifth magnitude: its position was determined from that star. This nebula is a little oval, the center clear

    M 082 - (February 9, 1781) `Nebula without star, near the preceding [M81]; both are appearing in the same field of the telescope,  its light faint & elongated:

    M 083 - (February 17, 1781) `Nebula without star, near the head of Centaurus: it appears as a faint & even glow,  it forms a triangle with two stars estimated of sixth & seventh magnitude: [its position was] determined from the stars i, k and h in the head of Centaurus:

    M 084 - (March 18, 1781) `Nebula without star, in Virgo; the center it is a bit brilliant, surrounded with a slight nebulosity:

    M 085 - (March 18, 1781) `Nebula without star, above & near to the ear of the Virgin [Virgo], between the two stars in Coma Berenices

    M 086 - March 18, 1781) `Nebula without star, in Virgo, on the parallel & very near to the nebula above, N0. 84

    M 087 - (March 18, 1781) `Nebula without star, in Virgo, below & very near a star of eighth magnitude, the star having the same Right Ascension as the nebula, & its Declination was 13d 42' 21" north

    M 088 - (March 18, 1781) `Nebula without star, in Virgo, between two small stars & one star of the sixth magnitude, which appear at the same time as the nebula in the field of the telescope. Its luminosity is one of the faintest

    M 089 - (March 18, 1781) `Nebula without star, in Virgo, a little of distance from & on the same parallel as the nebula reported above, N0. 87. Its light was extremely faint & pale

    M 090 - (March 18, 1781) `Nebula without star, in Virgo: its light is as faint as the preceding, N0. 89.

    M 091 - (March 18, 1781) `Nebula without star, in Virgo, above the preceding No 90: its light is still fainter than that of the above

    M 092 - (March 18, 1781) `Nebula, fine, distinct, & very bright, between the knee & the left leg of Hercules,. It contains no star; the center is clear & brilliant, surrounded by nebulosity & [it] resembles the nucleus of a large Comet

    M 093 - (March 20, 1781) `Cluster of small stars, without nebulosity, between the Greater Dog [Canis Major] and the prow of the ship [Puppis of Argo Navis].

    M 094 - (March 24, 1781) `Nebula without star, above the Heart of Charles [alpha Canum Venaticorum], on the parallel of the star no. 8, of sixth magnitude of the Hunting Dogs [Canes Venatici],  In the center it is brilliant & the nebulosity [is] a bit diffuse. It resembles the nebula which is below Lepus, No. 79; but this on is more beautiful & brighter

    M 095 - (March 24, 1781) `Nebula without star, in the Lion [Leo], above star l (53 Leonis): its light is very faint

    M 096 - March 24, 1781) `Nebula without star, in the Lion [Leo], near the preceding [No. 95]: this one is less distinct, both are on the same parallel of Regulus: they resemble the two nebulae in the Virgin [Virgo], Nos. 84 and 86

    M 097 - (March 24, 1781) `Nebula in the great Bear [Ursa Major], near Beta

    M 098 - (April 13, 1781) `Nebula without star, of an extremely faint light, above the northern wing of the Virgin [Virgo], on the parallel & close to the star no. 6, fifth magnitude, of the hair of Berenice [Coma Berenices]

    M 099 - (April 13, 1781) `Nebula without star, of an extremely faint light, above the northern wing of the Virgin [Virgo], on the parallel & close to the star no. 6, fifth magnitude, of the hair of Berenice [Coma Berenices]

    M 100 - (April 13, 1781) `Nebula without star, of the same light as the preceding [M 99], situated in the ear of Virgo

    M 101 -  (March 27, 1781) `Nebula without star, very obscure & pretty large, of 6 or 7 minutes [of arc] in diameter, between the left hand of Bootes & the tail of the great Bear [Ursa Major].

    M 102 - ( not dated ) Nebula between the stars Omicron of Bootes & Iota of the Dragon [Draco]: it is very faint; near it is a star of the sixth magnitude.

    M 103 - ( not dated ) Cluster of stars between Epsilon & Delta of the leg of Cassiopeia

    M 104 - May 11, 1781, discovered a nebula above the Raven [Corvus] which doesn't contain any single star. It is of a faint light  comparedits position  with Spica in the Virgin and from this derived its right ascension 187d 9' 42" and its southern declination 10d 24' 49"

    M 105 - (May 6, 1783)  two nebulous stars, compared its situation with Gamma Leonis from which followed its right ascension 159d 3' 45" and its northern declination of 13d 43' 58".'

    M 106 -   (May 6, 1783)  nebula close to the Great Bear [Ursa Major] near the star No. 3 of the Hunting Dogs [Canes Venatici] and 1 deg more south, I estimate its right ascension 181d 40' and its northern declination about 49d.

    M 107 -  (April 1782 ) small nebula in the left flank of Ophiuchus between the stars Zeta and Phi

    M 108 -  identified by Owen Gingerich in 1953 as that of H V.46 = NGC 3556, which is now called M108)

    M 109 - Owen Gingerich in 1953 as that of H IV.61 = NGC 3992, which is now called M109)





    In the beginning there was darkness � than Bang. An ever expanding Universe. Giving birth to time, space and matter. Constellation once guided mariners, now guides astronomers. The constellations are not just pictures and stories, they contain star types. Constellations are like land marks on a road. They

    give direction, distance on where to go. On earth we have EW � Latitude, NS longitude ant in the sky there is declination and rightasention � project on the sky. Guide stars Polaris. Man made star satellites.

    Constellation give us direction, where we're looking. The sky makes the star look like they are in the same plane. They look like they are at the same distance. But same are nearer and some are farther away. Which star are close and which are farther away. Looking at the night sky, you can not tell distances. What is the true distance between two stars? Reference stars - parallax the world in three dimension. The farther the star the greater the parallax. A sec in arch 360 deg. In a circle, every deg. There is 60 minutes. Every minute the is 60 seconds.


    Cepheus � The King of AETHEOPIA 57 visible stars. DELTA CEPHEI effect like a meta-none Big the star the slower the blinking - Brightness to Dim to bright again. Things the same brightness look brighter as you get closer. Astronomers use the term apparent magnitude to describe how bright an object appears in the sky from Earth.

    Outside the galaxy astronomers relies on super nova

    Edwin Hubble determined Andromeda 2 million light year outside our galaxy.

    Orion Greek the hunter - 77 visible stars

    Alinitak � Alnilam � Mintaka the belt stars

    Inside Orion you see the life and death of stars

    Orion Nebula � nursery for baby stars

    Red giant beatle juice � a dieing star, cooler than our sun, but much larger( 14x). When it run out of fuel it becomes unstable and could explode. It will light up the whole night sky and be visible in the day light. 427 light years from earth. It could have exploded ( super Nova) already, but light hasn't the time to reach us.

    Blue super giant Regal

    Ancestress look to to star - When to plant and when to harvest. Every star had a meaning

    Saris � Canis Magor the star of Irses, In the sky before dawn in the Summer salseiest. The annual rise

    of the Nile. River.

    Three pyramids in Egypt � alined to the constellation Orion. Osiris is an Egyptian god, usually identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld and the dead. Air shafts connected to the havens. N and S pointing, South to Orion. North star 2000 years ago Constellation Draco The Dragon 79 visible stars Thuban the pole star at the time, now Polaris 2500 x brighter than our sun Polaris AB and B other stars in ursa minor

    Interactions of Energy and Matter (waves possessing energy and transferring - Begin pulling and pushing. Gravity creates forces , sun and moon warble takes 2600 years to make one complete circle. Inastronomy, axial precession is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis. In particular, it refers to the gradual shift in the orientation of Earth's axis of rotation, which, similar to a wobbling top, traces out a pair of cones joined at their apices in a cycle of approximately 26,000 years Not a perfect sphere it bodges at equate. 1400 year the nort6h star will be Vega 25 light years away

    Closer stars are to the pole the great a fixed position.( Cirpolor).

    Stars vary with density, size and brightness

    Viable stars pulsate. It get brighter and Dimmer. It expands and contracts. Can be hours, days, or months. T tori stars pulsate because they are young and unstable. Have a struggle with gravity. As they age they find an equilibrium and become stable stars. The Sun was a T tori star.. These star represent an evolution of our sun. Violent seen with crashing and colliding of matter.

    The 1st T tori stars where identified in Taurus THE BULL 98 viable stars. Aldebaran a red giant star, eye of the bull

    Zodiac Ecliptic Plane � The Constellations of the Zodiac actually form an imaginary belt in the sky that extends about eight degrees above and below the Plane of the Ecliptic. The only area in the sky where an eclipse can a cure. The path the earth travels as it orbits the sun. 8 degrees above and below is the Zodiac. The Zodiac is the ring of constellations that the Sun seems to pass through each year as the Earth orbits around it. The 12 Zodiacal Constellations or the Signs of the Zodiac are famous today for their use in Astrology. Horoscope reading on the 12 zodiacal signs - Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo , Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces. In the band is the 12 But there are 13 Ophiuchus The Serpent Bearer 55 visible stars Barnard's Star fastest moving star in the night sky. Zodiac constellations Different constellation and different size constellations. Sign keep on changing with the movement of the plane. Er ea Greek and Roman astronomers.

    Wolf ray stars outer gasses evaporate themselves and leave ore n

    Dark cloud constellations

    Crux the southern cross 20 stars visible Gamma, Alpha to locate the south pole

    1922 A.I.U. Unified the names and shapes of the constellations 88,

    Ursa Major the Great bear 71 visible stars , asterism big dipper, misear 5 stars

    Cygnus The Swan 79 visible stars, Debem 250 x big and brighter than the sun White super giant star rare it is red white to blue, white only 1% of its life. Has a black hole in the heart, a super nover died 1st black hole, suck in companion star

    Stars are born, others explode Super Nova, die and become black holes


    Night sky life or. death order in the world a tool for survival. Travel different constellations divide the sky a map, sample of stars

    Our Sun has no companion

    Centaurus The Centaur center 101 visible stars Alpha Beta Brighrtest stars in the night sky, it hold the nearest star to the earth triple star system, orbit together, Amga Centurion largest star cluster in our galaxy complicated orbits move together as a group. Center of a galaxy that combined with our galaxy

    The light takes Alpha Centurion 4.2 years to reach us.


    60% all stars seen are double stars or greater.


    10,000 years you will see sky change, star are changing. A different angle the constellations change. Constellation have 3 to 5 planets


    Transits of Venus across the disk of the Sun are among the rarest of planetary alignments. Indeed, only six such events have occurred since the invention of the telescope (1631, 1639, 1761, 1769, 1874 and 1882). The next two transits of Venus will occur on 2004 June 08 and 2012 June 06.

    The Sun's magnetic poles will remain as they are now, with the north magnetic pole pointing through the Sun's southern hemisphere, until the year 2012 when they will reverse again. This transition happens, as far as we know, at the peak of every 11-year sunspot cycle.

    Why did the ancient Mayan or pre-Maya choose December 21st, 2012 A.D., as the end of their Long Count calendar?  Scholars have known for decades that the 13-baktun cycle of the Mayan "Long Count" system of timekeeping was set to end precisely on a winter solstice, and that this system was put in place some 2300 years ago.


     GALLERY:   Click on photo to enlarge

    Snake Eyes

    The Yucatan offers the spring and autumn solstice at Chichen Itza. Twice each year, during the vernal (March 20 or 21) and autumnal

    Friday, March 20, 2009 - The equinox occured at 7:44 a.m. EDT, marking the start of spring in the Northern Hemisphere (fall in the Southern Hemisphere). This is when the Sun crosses the equator heading north for the year. The Sun rises and sets nearly due east and west, and day and night are nearly equal in length.

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    Ocean Pointe Marina


    Ocean Pointe Vacation This upscale Condominium Resort is located directly on the Ocean in Key Largo. Offering a beautifully decorated condo, with two bedroom - two bath with whirlpool tubs for weekly and monthly rentals Ocean Pointe Suite is located,about one hour drive south from Miami international Airport,The hard Rock Cafe-Casino,the Art Deco South Beach and Miami shopping.
    About 90 miles east of Key West.

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    Key Largo is known as the "Diving Capital of the World" while Islamorada is called the "Sport Fishing Capital".


    Key Largo Getaway


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    Living Room & Kitchen - Ocean Pointe/Key Largo, Florida Keys Condo Rental

    Living Room & Kitchen - Ocean Pointe,Tavernier, FL - Upper Keys Condo Rental


    Beautifully decorated, two bedroom, two bath, third-floor Condo. This unit is located at Ocean Pointe Suite and is perfect for anyone who dives, loves to boat, or wants to fish. This cozy unit is warm and inviting for those looking for a relaxing vacation or a getaway.

    This resort condo has everything you need to restore your body and your mind. There is an outdoor pool and spa. There is a marina with dock space and boat ramp. There is a fishing pier, beach, canaba all in a park like setting. A sandy beach for relaxing and your tanning pleasure.  There are many restaurents in the area. There are many parks and beaches. You can bike, walk, kayak, sight see, charter boats, water sports, historic sites ect..... Or don't do anything.

    Welcome to Ocean Pointe! This condo is available for your enjoyment. Please call or e-mail and you are well on your way to paradise!!!


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    Activities (on site or nearby): Beach, pool, Tennis, Biking, Coral Reef,Golf, Parks, beaches, Fishing, Wildlife Viewing, Backcountry Fishing,  Dea Sea Fishing, Kayaking, Shopping, Restaurants, Cinemas, Swimming, Snorkeling/Diving, Boating, Waterskiing, Windsurfing, Parasailing





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    Local information about tourism, fishing, diving, snorkeling, restaurants, accommodations, lobsters, lighthouses, maps, vacation, fish, birds, plants and history about all the Fabulous Florida Keys including Key Largo, Tavernier, Islamorada,

                                                                               Ocean Pointe Suites at Key Largo. Spread across 67 acres of the Florida Keys ... 2 Lighted tennis courts, large pool, private beach, kayaking, volleyball ...




    Owner Direct Vacation Rental - Privately-owned villa, condo, apartment and home for rent. Why stay at a hotel, when you can rent an affordable holiday lodging directly on the ocean. Rent directly from the owner. chalet, cabin, villa, home, apartment, condo, accommodation, beautiful, florida keys, resort, Expedia, Miami, south florida, Homestead, ocean view, vacation rental, Key Largo Ocean Front Condominiam Hotel Resort Islamorada,ocean pointe, Tavernier, Kayak John Pennecamp Coral Reef State Park, Fishing reports, tourism information, backcountry guide, weather conditions, Jimmy Buffett Mararitaville state of mind, party parrot head, Islamorada deep sea fishing, 33037, 33070, Islamorada charters, 33036, Key West,sailfish tournaments, Bonefish guide, Sailfish charter, Fishing capital of the world, Trip advisor, Dive shipwrecks , snorkle coral reef, Spiegel Grove, Christ of the deep, John Pennecamp Coral Reef State Park, lodging information,

    Accommodations Hotel Condominiam Rental.



    Home | Dive Sites | Kayaking | Beaches and Parks | Deep Sea Fishing | Backcountry Fishing | Native Americans | Keys History | EVERGLADES | Jimmy Buffett | Restaurants | Birds of the Keys | The Coral Reef | SAILING | Links | E-mail | Entertainment

    Local information about tourism, fishing, diving, snorkeling, restaurants, accommodations, lobsters, lighthouses, maps, vacation, fish, birds, plants and history about all the Fabulous Florida Keys including Key Largo, Tavernier, Islamorada  

    Key Largo Sunrise, Sunset & Moon Times

    Click for Key Largo, Florida Forecast

    A hurricane is a tropical system with maximum sustained winds of at least 74 mph. At the center of the hurricane is an "eye" that varies in size but is commonly 20 to 30 miles wide. While the storm itself may extend out from the eye several hundred miles, hurricane force winds (74 mph) routinely extend 50 to 100 miles out of the eye. Atlantic hurricanes "spin" in a counter clockwise rotation that is started by the rotation of the earth.


    The Pyramid of Kukulkan at Chichen Itza


    Vacation Property

    OCEAN POINTE  Vacation Rental

    Key Largo is known as the "Diving Capital of the World" while Islamorada is called the "Sport Fishing Capital".

    Miami to Key West is one of the more memorable automobile tours. Drive the Overseas Highway across a 128 mile chain of subtropical islands.This chain of coral and limestone islands connected by 42 bridges. The waters ranging from aquamarine to deep blue and emerald green. With dazzling sunsets and sunrises. Just off U.S. 1 you can fine an underwater worlds of silent beauty, tropical birds, mangrove islands and the key deer. A prime vacation spot. A place where artists, writers, fishers, and retirees make their homes in the  fragile natural resources of the Florida Keys.

    Fishing and kayaking are some of the many alluring outdoor adventures in the Upper Keys, a collection of 823 islands.

    Your Upper Keys adventure and beach vacation features hiking, biking, kayaking, and some of the best snorkeling in the world! Not to mention a chance to relax on the beach and catch some sun. Explore the Florida Keys including historic and eccentric Key West, the Everglades National Park and the best of Florida�s state parks. Look for the hiden beauity of manatees, alligators, and thousands of exotic birds. Take an air boat ride or do some fishing. 


    Home | Dive Sites | Kayaking | Beaches and Parks | Deep Sea Fishing | Backcountry Fishing | Keys History | EVERGLADES | Jimmy Buffett | Restaurants | Birds of the Keys | The Coral Reef | SAILING | Links | E-mail | Entertainment
    Local information about tourism, fishing, diving, snorkeling, restaurants, accommodations, lobsters, lighthouses, maps, vacation, fish, birds, plants and history about all the Fabulous Florida Keys including Key Largo, Tavernier, Islamorada
    Vacation Property

    OCEAN POINTE  Vacation Rental

    Ocean Pointe Suites at Key Largo. Spread across 67 acres of the Florida Keys ... 2 Lighted tennis courts, large pool, private beach, kayaking, volleyball ...
    Key Largo, the longest in the island chain, is a popular bedroom community and a favorite stop for diving,fishing,kayaking and other water sports .It is a window to nature.


    Key Largo Getaway


    Lookback Times for Some Astronomical Objects



    Time for the Light to Reach Us

    The Moon

    1 1/3 sec

    The Sun

    8 minutes


    35 to 52 minutes


    5 1/2 hours (on average)

    Alpha Centauri (nearest star system)

    4.3 years

    Sirius (brightest star in our sky)

    9 years

    Betelgeuse (bright star)

    430 years

    Orion Nebula

    1500 years

    Andromeda Galaxy

    2.5 million years